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投稿者 怪傑 日時 2003 年 6 月 04 日 23:38:49:QV2XFHL13RGcs
投稿者 木村愛二 日時 2003 年 6 月 05 日 10:06:09:
(回答先: イスラエル首相「パレスチナ国家との共存容認」 −日本経済新聞 投稿者 怪傑 日時 2003 年 6 月 04 日 23:38:49)
November 14, 2004
Israel Takes Quiet Steps to Bolster Palestinians
By STEVEN R. WEISMAN
WASHINGTON, Nov. 13 - Under American encouragement and, in some cases, pressure, Israel has quietly taken steps aimed at strengthening the standing of Palestinian moderates and has agreed to consider others now that the Palestinian leader, Yasir Arafat, has died, according to American and Israeli officials.
A week ago, for example, with Mr. Arafat in the final days of his life in a Paris hospital, Israel released $40 million in frozen tax funds to the Palestinian Authority after long resisting such an action, the officials said. In addition, Prime Minister Ariel Sharon has agreed to consider removing Israeli security forces from Palestinian population areas, at the behest of the Bush administration, to facilitate Palestinian elections in the next two months, according to an official close to the discussions.
The official said that Israel had serious misgivings about the proposal, fearing that a pullback could reignite anti-Israel violence, but that Mr. Sharon's government was willing to think about the idea under certain conditions, including if Palestinian forces could be mobilized in the Israelis' place. "When it comes to implementing the decision to have elections in 60 days, the question arises of what you do with the I.D.F.," said the official, referring to the Israel Defense Forces. "You want freedom of movement for the Palestinians, but you have to make sure that nothing is done that costs Israeli lives."
The death of Mr. Arafat is viewed as an opportunity to revive the moribund Israeli-Palestinian peace effort. Steps were already under way to have Israel make gestures to gain more Palestinians' support for Mr. Sharon's planned withdrawal from Gaza, and with the illness of Mr. Arafat, other ideas came forward to support Palestinian moderates. Many of the Israeli actions aimed at easing conditions of the Palestinians have been carried out with little or no publicity, in part because it suited the political interests of both President Bush and Mr. Sharon.
At a news conference on Friday with Prime Minister Tony Blair of Britain, Mr. Bush said there was a "great chance" to establish a Palestinian state. Secretary of State Colin L. Powell, speaking on NBC on Saturday, said of the new leadership, "We know these gentlemen well, and I hope to be able to see them in the very near future to discuss what their plans are and how to move forward."
The Palestinian prime minister, Ahmed Qurei, called Saturday for a speedy resumption of peace efforts with Israel, saying that with determination the two sides could reach an agreement "in a very short time." He said Palestinian elections would be held by Jan. 9.
Israel responded with another gesture on Saturday, according to The Associated Press, which reported from Jerusalem that the Israeli army has decided to let Palestinian security forces carry guns in public, overturning a policy in effect since 2002.
The White House and Mr. Sharon's office are also discussing other steps to facilitate the elections that are points of dispute between Israel and the Palestinians.
For example, Israel is resisting the idea of allowing Palestinians in the Jerusalem area to vote, as they did in the 1996 elections won by Mr. Arafat, on grounds that Jerusalem is not a Palestinian constituency.
Israel says that as a good-will gesture to bolster the Palestinian moderates and gain backing for its plan to withdraw settlers and forces from Gaza, it eased many checkpoints and roadblocks throughout the West Bank.
But it reimposed many of them after two suicide bombers from Hebron blew up two buses in Beersheba, killing 16 Israelis, in August. Hamas, a leading Islamic militant group that aspires to challenge the moderate Palestinian leaders, claimed responsibility.
Israel is said to be extremely concerned about a repetition of such episodes if it should withdraw forces from Palestinian population areas to help with elections. More bus bombs might turn Israelis against Mr. Sharon and especially against his plan to Gaza withdrawal plan.
In Gaza, representatives of Hamas and Islamic Jihad said that while they favored Palestinian unity and wanted to take part in Palestinian politics, they opposed any suspension of their violent war with Israel so long as Israeli troops remain anywhere in Gaza or the West Bank.
American officials are also raising questions about the extensive presence of Israeli troops if the planned elections are to succeed, a similar problem to the situation in Iraq, where elections are being planned as American and other forces remain entrenched in population centers.
"How do you conduct elections in 60 days if the Israelis are still all over Gaza and areas of the West Bank?" asked an American official. "That's been a question we've started to have to think about."
Mr. Sharon, in the midst of a tough fight to win approval of the Gaza pullout plan, has not wanted to be seen as yielding to American pressure, especially as some of his conservative allies are warning that the withdrawal will jeopardize Israeli security.
For his part, Mr. Bush was loath to talk of getting Israel to make concessions while he was campaigning for re-election and counting on supporters of Israel in the Jewish and conservative Christian communities in crucial states.
While quietly pressuring Israel on some matters, Mr. Bush has given Mr. Sharon's government wide latitude to expand settlements in certain parts of the West Bank and to construct a separation barrier.
There is also a discussion between Israel and the United States about what would most strengthen the hand of Mahmoud Abbas, also known as Abu Mazen, who has emerged as the principal Palestinian leader.
He is expected to run for president of the Palestinian Authority, the post held by Mr. Arafat, and is trying to organize a cease-fire with militant groups.
Mr. Abbas and his ally, Mr. Qurei, may face opposition from Hamas leaders and militant factions in their own camp.
As a result, the issue of what Israel can do to strengthen Mr. Abbas's hand is coming to the fore, said European, Arab, American and Israeli officials.
There is also a problem of the credibility of Mr. Sharon's plan to pull out of Gaza, which Arab and Palestinian leaders with the support of some people in Europe say is a kind of trick aimed at making sure that Israel continues to hold on to the West Bank in perpetuity.
For that reason, some officials said, Mr. Blair and Mr. Bush issued a joint statement on Friday reaffirming that the Gaza withdrawal, while a step forward, had to be connected to talks that would create a full Palestinian state in the West Bank as well.
November 14, 2004
Palestinians Turn Toward Future as They Continue to Mourn
By JAMES BENNET
RAMALLAH, West Bank, Nov. 13 - As they continued quietly to mourn Yasir Arafat on Saturday, Palestinian officials turned their attention to finding a successor, vowing elections by Jan. 9 for a president with the authority to resume peace talks with Israel.
"Before that, everything will be temporary," said Nabil Aburdeinah, Mr. Arafat's closest aide. "Without a democratically elected president to get the legitimacy that President Arafat used to have, there won't be anything new."
He predicted a "difficult transitional period" but said that the Palestinian Authority would be able to continue to "carry out its duties."
Mr. Aburdeinah spoke steps from Mr. Arafat's flower-strewn grave in the compound here that served as his de facto seat of government and the beleaguered focal point of the Palestinian struggle with Israel.
After a frenzied burial for the leader on Friday, when thousands of Palestinians overwhelmed Palestinian security forces to join in the service, the compound was tranquil on Saturday, with families and groups coming in small numbers to pray, weep or just sit by the grave.
Officials who once came here to meet with Mr. Arafat, who was trapped in the compound by Israel for nearly three years, arrived Saturday to pray and exchange condolences. As they recalled their longtime comrade and sometime scourge and political opponent, they appeared intent on securing his mantle.
When Mr. Arafat died Thursday of an undisclosed illness, Mahmoud Abbas, a former Palestinian prime minister and veteran negotiator, was named to the post of chairman of the Palestine Liberation Organization.
A critic of the Palestinian uprising against Israel, Mr. Abbas continued to maintain a public silence about his plans while appearing at the center of the public display of grief for Mr. Arafat. He knelt and bowed in prayer at dawn by Mr. Arafat's grave and then stood to greet the Palestinian security officers, bankers and others who came to grieve for Mr. Arafat.
Palestinian officials say that Mr. Abbas, also known as Abu Mazen, will run for president as the only candidate of Mr. Arafat's dominant faction, Al Fatah.
But supporters of Marwan Barghouti, the most popular Fatah leader after Mr. Arafat's death, said that he might run for president from an Israeli prison.
A Palestinian legislator who speaks Hebrew and English and once had close ties with Israelis, Mr. Barghouti became a leader in the present uprising, declaring that armed struggle was the way to end the Israeli occupation of the West Bank and Gaza Strip. He is serving five life sentences on a conviction of involvement in killing Israelis.
Palestinian analysts said that Mr. Barghouti's supporters might be seeking leverage to assure that Mr. Abbas takes the jailed leader's views into account, an opening move in an anticipated struggle over the direction of Palestinian leadership.
While favored by American and Israeli officials, Mr. Abbas is not popular in the Palestinian streets and may have limited room to maneuver in meeting the demands of Israel to crack down on militants.
His supporters say he will ultimately win any election by advocating law and order and an end to official corruption, addressing Palestinian restiveness over the performance of the Palestinian Authority.
But he will almost surely seek to avoid suggesting a divergence from Mr. Arafat. Yasir Abed Rabbo, a top Palestinian official, said the time had not come to talk of any major changes.
"It's very difficult now to say that we are going to make a change in policy," he said. "I prefer to say we will continue the same policy and try to avoid mistakes that were committed in the past."
Ahmed Qurei, the Palestinian prime minister, led a group of other officials at midmorning to stand by Mr. Arafat's tomb. In the name of the Palestinian people, he promised Mr. Arafat the struggle would go on. Palestinian officials welcomed statements made Friday by President Bush and Prime Minister Tony Blair of Britain setting the creation of a Palestinian state as a priority. But they urged quick action.
"I'm saying to the American administration, to President Bush, to the Israelis and to the whole world, now is the period where we should be more serious," Mr. Qurei said. "If we are determined to do it, we can do it in a very short time."
Until elections, the presidency of the Palestinian Authority has devolved under law to the former speaker of the Parliament, Rawhi Fattouh, a minor politician.
Palestinian officials appealed for pressure on Israel to pull back its forces sufficiently from Palestinian cities to permit voting. Israel has encircled the cities and imposed tight travel restrictions on Palestinians over the last three years.
Israeli officials say they also have an interest in seeing Palestinian elections. But they call their military pressure on the Palestinians essential in the absence of any Palestinian crackdown on terrorism.
It is not yet certain which of the Palestinian factions will take part in elections. Hamas, the militant organization, has refused in the past to stand for elections for posts in the Palestinian Authority because it was a creation of the 1993 Oslo accords between the P.L.O. and Israel, which Hamas opposed.
Asked if Hamas would be welcome to nominate candidates, Mr. Aburdeinah offered his view that to do so it would have to set aside its stated goal of destroying Israel.
"We believe that every Palestinian has the right to run for elections, but on the basis of law and order, on the basis of the commitments of the P.L.O. and the commitments of the Palestinian Authority," he said. "We believe in democracy, but we believe in law and order as wel
Asked if that meant Hamas must accept a two-state solution to the conflict, he replied, "Definitely."
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