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(回答先: サダムの時代の方が良かった/マルコム・ラガウシュ [イラク情勢ニュース］ 投稿者 white 日時 2005 年 3 月 19 日 22:10:37)
Last Updated: Friday, 18 March, 2005, 17:47 GMT
Dutchman in Iraq genocide trial
By Geraldine Coughlan
BBC News, Rotterdam
The trial of a Dutch businessman accused of selling chemicals to former Iraqi leader Saddam Hussein to make poison gas is due to open in Rotterdam.
Frans van Anraat, 62, is accused of selling US and Japanese chemicals which were used to produce poison gas.
The gases are said to have been used to kill more than 5,000 in a 1988 attack on the Kurdish Iraqi town of Halabja.
Mr van Anraat earlier admitted selling chemicals but told Dutch TV he had not known what they would be used for.
The full trial of the businessman - the first Dutch national to be prosecuted for genocide - is not due to start until November.
Evidence being used by prosecutors includes information obtained from the former head of Iraq's chemical weapons programme, Ali Hassan al-Majid, otherwise known as Chemical Ali.
He has been charged in Iraq of masterminding the mustard gas attack on Halabja for which Saddam Hussein also faces charges.
'Not my order'
Frans van Anraat listened to the charges on Friday in the Rotterdam courtroom in the presence of four survivors of the Halabja attack, each of whom are demanding more than $10,000 (7,513 euros) in damages.
The atmosphere in the courtroom was sombre as a prosecutor read them out, the BBC's Geraldine Coughlan reports.
The prosecution said there was a direct link between the injuries of two victims and a chemical substance known as TDG, allegedly supplied by the businessman.
"Van Anraat was conscious of... the fact that his materials were going to be used for poison gas attacks," said prosecutor Fred Teeven.
"The damage and grief caused will not be rapidly, if ever, forgotten."
Mr van Anraat is charged with supplying thousands of tons of raw materials for chemical weapons used in the 1980-1988 war against Iran and against Iraqi Kurds.
According to prosecutors, the United Nations has described Mr van Anraat as "one of the most important middlemen in Iraq's acquisition of chemical material".
His defence lawyers said there was no convincing evidence linking the material supplied by Mr van Anraat and chemical weapons used by Saddam.
In a 2003 interview, Mr van Anraat denied being aware of the attack.
"The images of the gas attack on the Kurdish city Halabja were a shock. But I did not give the order to do that," he told Dutch magazine Revu.
"How many products, such as bullets, do we make in the Netherlands?"
One of the survivors in court, Karwan Abdula, told AFP news agency that the arrest of van Anraat "was nearly as important as the arrest of Saddam Hussein".
Prosecutors say the Dutchman had been a suspect since 1989, when he was arrested in Milan, Italy, at the request of the US government.
But he was later released and fled to Iraq, where he remained until 2003.
During that time, reports say he fed information to the Dutch intelligence agency on Saddam Hussein's weapons programme.
After the US-led invasion of Iraq in March 2003, he returned to the Netherlands and was arrested in December 2004 at his Amsterdam home.
The UN suspects he made 36 separate shipments of chemicals via the Belgian port of Antwerp through Aqaba in Jordan to Iraq, the prosecution says.
At Friday's hearing, judges rejected a request by Mr van Anraat to be provisionally released pending trial - to applause from the public gallery.
Trader accused of supplying gas used in Halabja attacks
Saturday March 19, 2005
The first EU citizen to be accused of involvement in genocide appeared in court yesterday in the Netherlands in a case that is being closely watched by war crimes experts and human rights activists.
Under tight security, Frans van Anraat, 62, a Dutch businessman who is alleged to have helped Saddam Hussein to gas the Kurds of Halabja in 1988, appeared for a pre-trial hearing in Rotterdam, facing charges of complicity in genocide and international war crimes.
His request to be released until the full trial opens in November was rejected by the court.
Mr Van Anraat, who was arrested at his Amsterdam home last December, has yet to enter a plea to any of the charges.
Fred Teeven, the prosecutor, told the hearing that Mr Van Anraat was fully aware that the chemicals he was supplying were being used for chemical weapons, adducing American, UN and Iraqi information to back up the allegation, as well as correspondence to and from Mr Van Anraat.
"Van Anraat was conscious of ... the fact that his materials were going to be used for poison gas attacks," he said. "The damage and grief caused will not be rapidly, if ever, forgotten. What's more, the dossier contains very strong indications that the suspect calmly continued with the deliveries of ingredients after the gas attack on Halabja on March 16 1988."
The defence said that Mr Van Anraat did not know what Iraq intended to do with the materials he provided, and that he stopped shipments to Iraq after the Halabja attack.
There was no convincing evidence linking the material he had supplied to chemical weapons used by Iraq.
The businessman was first detained in Milan in 1989 after a request from the US, but was released two months later.
He surfaced in Baghdad, which he made his home for 14 years under a new identity: Faris Mansoor Rashid al-Bazas. After the American-led invasion of Iraq, the portly bespectacled trader moved again in April 2003.
He took a taxi to the Syrian border, then made his way to the Netherlands, where he moved into a small terrace house overlooking a canal in the west of Amsterdam.
Late last year he was about to leave the city when, alerted by telephone intercepts indicating his travel plans, the Dutch police arrested him.
Dubbed "Holland's Chemical Ali" by the Dutch media, Mr Van Anraat is the first Dutchman to be charged with international war crimes.
The Van Anraat saga goes back 20 years. The US customs service says he has been on its 10 list of most wanted suspects internationally for years.
Although the case focuses on dozens of allegedly illegal shipments of chemical precursors to Iraq via the US, Europe, Japan, and the far east, it also appears to entail cloak-and-dagger elements and intelligence cover-ups, aspects which are certain to feature in Mr Van Anraat's defence, and which could prove embarrassing to the Dutch government.
The main allegations are that between 1984 and 1989 he supplied the Saddam regime with thousands of tonnes of chemical precursors for mustard gas and nerve gas.
These gases Saddam then used against Iranians in the Iran-Iraq war and, most infamously, in "Operation Anfal" in Iraqi Kurdistan between February and September 1988, gassing, killing and maiming tens of thousands of civilians, including the 5,000 massacred in Halabja in March that year.
Mr Van Anraat has never denied supplying the chemicals. But he denies knowing that they were intended for weapons purposes, and says he was sickened by television footage of the massacre.
"The images of the gas attack on the Kurdish city Halabja were a shock," he said in a 2003 interview with a Dutch magazine, Nieuwe Revu.
"But I did not give the order to do that. How many products, such as bullets do we make in the Netherlands?"
Arnold Karskens, a prominent Dutch journalist who has been tracking Mr Van Anraat since 1991, said: "He told me it all had nothing to do with the military industry."
Wim De Bruin, an official in the Dutch prosecutor's offices, said: "We have a list of 34 shipments of precursors. Not all of them were investigated by the Americans."
There is also a string of unanswered questions about the conduct of the Dutch authorities. The Americans dropped their arrest warrant for Mr Van Anraat in 2000.
"They didn't explain why," Mr De Bruin said.
Fleeing Iraq when the Americans invaded, but without a valid Dutch passport after 14 years in the Iraqi capital, Mr Van Anraat was given a "laisser passer", a travel document enabling him to get home. "The Dutch government helped him to get back here and then refused to look into his case," said Krista van Velzen, a Socialist MP who has been regularly tabling parliamentary questions on the case.
It was then disclosed that, despite having been under investigation since December 2003, Mr Van Anraat was given a new passport last October, and that the house in Amsterdam in which he was living was, in fact, an interior ministry safe house.
There are claims that he had collaborated with Dutch intelligence for years on Iraq's weapons programmes, and that, in return, he was promised immunity and a safe haven in the Netherlands.
"The justice ministry wanted to prosecute him, but the interior ministry and the AIVD [intelligence service] wanted to protect him," Ms Van Velzen said.
19 March 2005
A Dutch businessman who is thought to have worked for the Netherlands' intelligence services has gone on trial, accused of supplying the chemicals used by Saddam Hussein to gas Kurds in the 1980s.
Frans van Anraat, 62, is accused of complicity in genocide in the first war-crimes case of its kind to be pursued by a national court. The prosecutor claims that between 1984 and 1988 Mr Van Anraat exported tons of chemicals that were turned into mustard gas and nerve gas.
Mr Van Anraat did not speak at yesterday's pre-trial hearing in Rotterdam. He was ordered to remain in custody until his case is heard in November.
First arrested in Italy in 1989, he was released after two months on remand pending extradition but fled to Iraq. After Saddam fell he moved on to Syria and then to the Netherlands, where he was re-arrested.
The proceedings may reveal the role of Western intelligence services in arming Saddam. Mr Van Anraat was thought to have worked as an informant for the Dutch secret service, the AIVD, in Iraq. Reports have said he was given a safe house by the AIVD when he went back to the Netherlands and that the Interior Ministry tried to prevent his prosecution.
Yesterday the prosecutor, Fred Teeven, said investigators had strong evidence that Mr Van Anraat "calmly went ahead" with delivering the chemicals even after the gas attack on Halabja that killed more than 5,000.
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