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襲撃を警戒し、住民同士が自衛の動き(New York Times)【イラク:Terrorist or Resistan】
投稿者 gataro 日時 2006 年 5 月 14 日 18:02:34: KbIx4LOvH6Ccw

http://ima-ikiteiruhushigi.cocolog-nifty.com/iraq/2006/05/alarmed_by_raid.html から転載。

Alarmed by Raids, Neighbors Stand Guard in Iraq (New York Times)

Alarmed by Raids, Neighbors Stand Guard in Iraq
写真の下にある青色文字 More Photosをクリックすると他の写真も閲覧できます

(BAGHDAD, Iraq, May 9)

It was almost 3 a.m. in Zubaida Square in central Baghdad last week when headlights signaled one flash, then two,then one again. From the darkness, someone signaled back. The watchers were there.

先週午前3時少し前、バグダッド中央の Zubaida 広場車のヘッドライトが一回点滅、それから二回点滅、更にもう一回点滅。暗闇から誰かがシグナルを返してきました。そこで見ていた者がいるのです。

As evidence mounts that Shiite police commandos are carrying out secret killings, Sunni Arab neighborhoods across Baghdad have begun forming citizen groups to keep the paramilitary forces out of their areas entirely. In large swaths of western Baghdad, and in at least six majority Sunni areas in its center, young men take turns standing in streets after the 11 p.m. curfew, to send out signals by flashlights and cellphones if strangers approach.


In some cases, the Sunnis have set up barricades and have taken up arms against Shiite-led commando raids into their neighborhoods. In other cases, residents have tipped off Sunni insurgents. Watch groups have been assembled in other mixed areas, including Baquba to the north and Mahmudiya to the south, residents and officials said.

ある場合には、スンニ派はバリケードを組み立てて、近隣へのシーア派により導かれる奇襲攻撃に対して武器を取りました。他のケースでは、住民がスンニ派の武装勢力に支援を仰ぎました。監視グループは、北は Baquba から、南は Mahmudiya までを含む、入り混ざった地域で整理統合されましたと住民と当局者が言いました。

Three years after the American invasion, the war has settled here, in the quiet of neighborhoods, streets and Iraqis' backyards. Dozens of bodies surface daily. People are taken from their homes and executed. Assassinations are routine. But instead of looking to the government for protection, ordinary Sunni Arabs are taking up arms against it, perhaps the most vivid illustration of the depth of Sunni mistrust of the American backed, Shiite-led security forces. "There is no bridge of confidence between the government and the Iraqi
people," said Tarik al-Hashimy, a vice president of Iraq who is a Sunni Arab.

アメリカの侵略の三年後、戦争は穏やかな住宅地、大通り、そしてイラク人家庭の裏庭にこのように埋めこまれました数十もの遺体が毎日発見されます。人々は家から連れ去られ、処刑されます。暗殺は日常化しています。けれども、保護を政府に求める代わりに、大抵のスンニ派アラブ人は、武器をとります。アメリカを背後にしたシーア派主導の治安部隊へのスンニ派住民の不信感の深さを如実に物語るものです。「政府とイラクの民衆の間には信頼の橋がありません」とTarik アル・Hashimy スンニ派アラブ人であるイラクの副大統領が言いました。

The groups, informal networks of neighbors, are not tracked by the authorities, and so are difficult to count. The Iraqi Army's battalions responsible for the northern and central portions of eastern Baghdad touched base with groups in Fadhel, Qaera, Waziriya and Adhamiya last Monday night. Many more neighborhoods, including Khudra, Jihad and Ghazaliya, in heavily Sunni western Baghdad, report similar organization. The residents emerge after dark,and are encountered by Iraqi Army night patrols who check in on them.

グループ、隣人の非公式のネットワークは当局によって追跡されません。その数を数えることが難しいです。東バグダッドの北部と中央部に責任があるイラク軍大隊は、先週の月曜日の夜、Fadhel、Qaera、Waziriya と Adhamiya のグループと共に基地に立ち寄りました。スンニ派の多い西バグダッドの Khudra、Jihad と Ghazaliya を含むもっとずっと多くの隣人達が類似の組織化を報告します。住民達は暗くなってから現れ、彼らの地区を巡回するイラク軍の夜のパトロール隊に出会います。

The groups ? with intricate webs of cellphones, mosque loudspeakers, flashlight codes and handheld radios ? mushroomed after the February bombing of a sacred Shiite shrine in Samarra that sparked several days of killing of Sunnis by Shiite militias.

グループ? 複雑な携帯電話網、モスク拡声器、懐中電灯と携帯ラジオ?シーア派の民兵によって数日間のスンニ派殺害をひき起こした Samarra での神聖なシーア派の聖廟の2月の爆破の後に、キノコ状に広がりました。

"Samarra is the turning point in the security file," Mr. Hashimy said.

「Samarra が治安問題の転換点です」と Hashimy が言いました。

In March, the Baghdad morgue received 1,294 bodies, more than double the 596 received in March 2005. In April, the figure was up by 88 percent from the previous April. Nearly 90 percent died violently, most by gunfire, according to the morgue.


"The killing, you can't imagine the killing," said Yusra Abdul Aziz, 47, a teacher, whose block, in Adhamiya, organized its watch group in March, after four neighbors were shot dead over several days. "Without any reason. Cars come and shoot us. We run to the hospital and get our wounded. We live in a nightmare, actually."

「殺戮、あなたは殺戮を想像することができません」4人の隣人が数日間で撃ち殺された後、 Adhamiya 地区の彼の住む区画で、3月に監視グループを組織化した Yusra アブドゥル・アジズ、47歳、教師が言いました。「理由もなく。自動車がやって来て私達を撃ちます。私達は病院に走って、負傷者に会います。私達は実際に悪夢の中に住んでいます」

On her block,seven men, Sunnis and Shiites, stand on rooftops and street corners from midnight to 6 a.m., stopping suspicious cars. Palm tree trunks and pieces of trash are used to block roads. Still, she is so afraid of nighttime raids by both the special police and marauding criminals dressed like police officers that she sleeps in her clothes.


As a counterweight to sectarian extremism, neighborhood watch groups often cross sectarian lines, with Sunni and Shiite neighbors standing guard together. Sunnis have even helped to protect Shiite neighbors from Sunni militias.


Many Sunnis say that despite their terror of the Iraqi special police, they tolerate the Iraqi Army, which they consider more professional and less partisan. They say soldiers sometimes turn a blind eye to their weapons, which are illegal outside the house. Some neighborhood watchers interviewed said they had cellphone numbers of army commanders in their speed-dial lists.


"Sometimes they talk to us," said a neighborhood guard. "They say, 'Don't let us see your weapons.' "


The army has even protected Sunni residents from the Shiite police. Col.Ghassan Ali Thamir of the Third Battalion said he stopped several Ministry of the Interior sport utility vehicles from entering Adhamiya last year, infuriating the ministry, which sent a memo demanding an explanation.

イラク軍はスンニ派の住民をシーア派の警察から守りさえしました。第三大隊のガッサーン・アリ Thamir 大佐は、去年内務省の車がAdhamiya 地区に入るのを何度か阻止しました。説明を要求してメモを送った大臣を激怒させました。

"The MOI says Colonel Ghassan cooperates with the terrorists," he said, sitting in his office in a former palace of Saddam Hussein in Adhamiya. "I don't want anyone taking anyone without a list. If they come for one, O.K., take one. But not more."

「内相はガッサーン大佐がテロリストに協力していると言っています」とAdhamiya でサダム・フセインの前の宮殿でオフィスに座って言いました。「私はリストなしで誰も連れて行かれるのを望みません。もし彼らが一人の為に来るなら、オーケー、一人を連れて行って下さい。しかしそれ以上は駄目です」

Sunnis also say they feel safer if Americans accompany Iraqis. "The Americans will not let the Iraqi forces kill us," one Ghazaliya resident put it bluntly.

「アメリカ人はイラク人に我々を殺させないでしょう」Ghazaliya 住民の一人が、ぶっきらぼうに言いました。

American commanders say that the watch groups are benign, and that the Iraqi Army does not permit them to patrol with weapons.


"You will see them ? a guy standing on the street corner," said Lt. Col. Paul Finken, of the 506th Regimental Combat Team of the 101st Airborne Division, whose area of control includes Adhamiya. "They are there, and it's no issue for U.S. Army forces."

「彼らが見える? 街角に立っている男」「彼らはそこにいます。それは米軍にとって問題ではありません」作戦地域が Adhamiya 地区を含む101空挺師団の第506連隊のポール Finken 大佐。

Still, to some Iraqi soldiers, the neighborhood patrols seem indistinguishable, in the end, from the Iraqi insurgency. A soldier who patrols in Adhamiya lifted up his sleeve to show scars from a hand grenade that had been thrown at him in the area.

結局まだ若干のイラク兵にとって、自警団のパトロールは、武装勢力と識別できないように思われます。Adhamiya でパトロールする兵士が、その区域で彼に投げつけられた

"They show themselves as liking the army, but it's not true,"said Second Lt. Ali Khadham of the Iraqi Army's Second Battalion, which patrols Adhamiya. "There's a very big hate inside them for government forces."

「彼らは軍に好意を示します。しかしそれは本当ではありません」「彼らの中に政府軍に対するとても強い憎悪があります」Adhamiya をパトロールするイラク軍の第二大隊のアリ Khadham 中尉。

Sunnis say they have organized purely out of self-protection, to defend their turf in a city where more and more areas have become no-go zones. In the darkness of Zubaida Square, a guard, Adel Kareem, 38, said he has given up work as a taxi driver because leaving his neighborhood with his Sunni ID meant risking arrest and execution, a fear echoed in many other Sunni areas.

スンニ派は、彼らがますます多くの区域が立ち入り禁止になった都市で、彼らの縄張りを守るために、純粋に自己防衛から組織化したと言います。Zubaida 広場の暗闇の中で、見張りである38歳のアデル・カリムは、彼のスンニ派のIDで近所を去ることは逮捕と処刑を覚悟でやってみることを意味したから、タクシー運転手の仕事を断念したと言いました。多くの他のスンニ派の地域でも恐怖がおうむ返しに聞かれました。

"I can't go to Kadhimiya, Shuala, Sadr City, Shaab," he said, ticking off the city's Shiite neighborhoods. "I would disappear." Sunni neighborhoods are just as dangerous for Shiites, in part because of neighborhood watch patrols.

「私は Shaab のサドルシティの Shuala のKadhimiyaに行くことができません」「私は姿を消すでしょう」都市のシーア派の近隣の人々を怒らせて言いました。スンニ派の隣人達は一部は自警団のパトロールの為に、シーア派にっとて同じぐらい危険です。

Shiites have also organized neighborhood patrols, but their trust in the police is high, and guards are few. Lieutenant Khadham said that in hismajority Shiite neighborhood, Ur, about 15 neighbors guard an area of about 400 houses, far less than in Adhamiya, where dozens of guards keep watch on each block.

シーア派も近隣のパトロール隊を組織化しました。しかし彼らの警察への信頼は深いです。見張りは殆どいません。Khadham 中尉は、シーア派が多数を占めるウルでは、約400世帯を約15人の見張りでガードする。多数のガードが各区画を監視し続ける Adhamiya よりはるかに少ないと言いました。

Shiite areas breathe more easily at night. In Greyat, a riverside Shiite enclave just north of Adhamiya, families with children were out walking at midnight recently. Tea shops overflowed with guests, bakeries exuded inviting smells and men sat talking in outdoor restaurants. In contrast, just several blocks away in the largely Sunni Arab neighborhood of Slekh, lights were out and blocks appeared vacant.

シーア派地域では夜は一層安心して眠れます。Adhamiya のすぐ北にある河岸のシーア派の飛び領土 Greyat で、最近家族は子供達と一緒に真夜中に歩いて外出中でした。喫茶店は客であふれて、パン屋は美味しそうな匂いをふりまき、男達がレストランの野外で座って話をしていました。対照的に、たった数ブロック離れた、主としてスンニ派のアラブ人の住むSlekh 近辺では、灯りが消え、その区画はまるで無人のようでした。

In the darkness of a quiet block in the largely Sunni district of Waziriya in central Baghdad on Monday night, Ali Salah Mahdi, a gangly, 21-year-old Sunni Arab,said his group had heard through its network that extremists intended to attack a neighbor who was working as a translator for American troops. They warned the man,who quickly fled with his family. Shortly after, Mr. Mahdi said, attackers strafed the man's house.

中央バグダッドの主としてスンニ派の地方である Waziriya で、静かな区画の暗闇の中で、月曜日の夜に、アリ・サラー・マハディ、ギャングのような21歳のスンニ派のアラブ人は、彼のグループがネットワークを通して、過激論者が米軍の為に通訳として働いていた隣人を襲うつもりだということを耳にしていたと言いました。彼らはその男に警告し、男は家族と一緒に素早く逃げました。直後に男の家に機銃掃射があったと言いました。

Paramilitary raids in the city appear to have eased in recent months, and Sunni residents attribute the drop to neighborhood patrols obstructing them. The evidence, they say, is that killers are now striking targets at their workplaces, in the hospitals and while they commute.


A recent example is the killing of 14 young men from Slekh last month. The men, who commuted together in a minivan from their shops in Sinek, another area, were returning home on April 15 when their vehicle was stopped and they were led away. Their bodies, some with drill holes, surfaced in the morgue several days later. Residents blame the Interior Ministry, though with no survivors from the van, no witnesses remain.

最近の例は先月14人の若い Slekh からの男性の殺害です。彼らの車が止められ、彼らが連れ去られた時、もう一つの地域である Sinek で彼らの店からミニバンで一緒に通勤した男達は4月15日に家に帰っていました。ドリルで穴を開けられた彼らの遺体は、数日後に遺体安置所に現れました。住民は内務省を非難します。しかし車の生存者なしで、目撃者が生存しません。

The incident only hardened residents' resolve for self-defense. "I am dizzy from going to funerals," said a guard at the Najib mosque, where neighbors came to mourn the men two weeks ago.


And in a more violent, and perhaps more telling, episode,on the night of April 17, uncontrolled gun battles raged in Adhamiya for more than seven hours.Four men,who identified themselves as local guards,said in interviews that shooting broke out after dozens of Interior Ministry cars drove into Adhamiya, though no one acknowledged actually seeing such a car.

一層暴力的で、そして多分いっそう効果的なエピソードが、4月17日の夜に、制御されていない撃ち合いが7時間以上の間 Adhamiya で荒れ狂いました。誰も実際にそのような車を見たことを認証しなかったけれども、自らが地元の見張りであると明らかにした四人の男性がインタビューで、数十台の内務省の車が Adhamiya の中に入って来た後、射撃が発生したと言いました。

Colonel Thamir said Sunni insurgents started rumors that the police had come to arrest people, setting off the battle. Five people were killed and many more were wounded.

Thamir 大佐は、スンニ派の武装勢力が警察が、戦闘を引き起こして、人々を逮捕に来たという噂を流し始めたと言いました。五人が殺され、もっとずっと多くが負傷しました。

Similar battles were reported in Khudra and in Shuhada in western Baghdad, during the days of sectarian rioting in February.

類似の戦いが二月の派閥の暴動の日々の間に、西バグダッドの Khudra とShuhada でも報告されました。

Insurgents started the fight, said Second Lt.Ahmed Majeed of the Iraqi Army's First Battalion Delta Force. "The civilians started to shoot," he said, looking frustrated. "What should we do?" The problem, he said, is ultimately one of trust. "Everyone has a gun," he said. "When I say,'I'm here to protect you,' they say, 'I'm not sure.' "

武装勢力が戦いを始めましたとイラク軍の最初の大隊デルタフォースのアーメドMajeed 大尉が言いました。「市民が撃ち始めました」と落胆したように彼が言いました。「我々は何をするべきですか」問題は究極的には信頼ですと彼が言いました。「皆が銃を持っています」『私はあなたを守る為にここにいる』と言う時、彼らは『私には確信がありません』と言うと彼が言いました。

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