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投稿者 こげぱん 日時 2007 年 6 月 26 日 23:50:09: okIfuH5uFf.Lk

下記英文はアメリカ・グローバリストの総本山Council on Foreign Relationsのサイトにあった、2008年アメリカ大統領各候補の対イスラエル政策を比較する一文です。思ったとおりと言えばそれまでですが、大半の候補者、とりわけ有力候補は全てイスラエルを支持してます。




Joseph R. Biden(D)
Hillary Clinton(D)
John Edwards(D)
Christopher J. Dodd(D)
Barack Obama(D)
Sam Brownback(R)
Jim Gilmore(R)
Rudy Giuliani(R)
Mike Huckabee(R)
Duncan Hunter(R)
John McCain(R)
Mitt Romney(R)
Tom Tancredo(R)
Tommy Thompson(R)

Dennis Kucinich(D)

Mike Gravel(D)
Bill Richardson(D)

Ron Paul(R)

John H. Cox(R)


The Candidates on the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict

June 12, 2007

For decades, the Israeli-Palestinian conflict complicated and, indeed, sometimes undermined U.S. diplomatic goals in the Middle East and beyond. With roots going back thousands of years (BBC), the conflict’s emotionally charged claims fuel religious, ideological, and proxy violence around the world. With some notable exceptions, candidates of both major U.S. parties put forth similar views on the conflict, stressing their commitment to defending Israel’s right to exist and calling on the Palestinian leadership and extragovernmental factions to renounce terrorism. But beyond rhetoric, each candidate faces a similar challenge: crafting a position which balances the historic U.S. alliance with Israel against the widely recognized need to press Israel to agree an equitable peace with the Palestinians. Most―though not all―accept the notion that the Israeli-Palestinian conflict animates other conflicts far from the Holy Land.

Democratic Candidates on Israeli-Palestinian Conflict

Joseph R. Biden
Sen. Biden (D-DE) is a self-described Zionist. Biden believes the United States should maintain extremely close ties with Israel, because in his experience, the Middle East has only progressed when “the Arab nations have known that there is no daylight between us and Israel,” as he said in a March 2007 interview with Forward. Biden dismissed the Iraq Study Group’s claims that the Israeli-Palestinian conflict is related to the problems of the Iraq War, saying on Shalom TV in March 2007 that Israel’s behavior has “nothing to do” with Iraq.

Biden cosponsored the Palestinian Anti-Terrorism Act of 2006. That act, which passed, expressed U.S. support for a two-state solution. It also deemed the Palestinian Authority a terrorist organization and cut off all U.S. funding until it renounces terrorism, acknowledges Israel’s right to exist, and holds up its former agreements with Israel. He has regularly supported military and financial aid packages to Israel throughout his long career on the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, of which he is now chairman.

Hillary Clinton
Though her advocacy (NYT) for Palestinian statehood in the 1990s drew criticism from American Jewish groups at the time, Sen. Clinton (D-NY) generally has aligned herself with pro-Israeli interests throughout her political career. In a February 2007 speech before the American Israel Public Affairs Committee (AIPAC), Clinton said Hamas, which took control of the Palestinian Authority in January 2006 and formed a coalition government with Fatah in February 2007, should not be recognized “until it renounces violence and terror and recognizes Israel's right to exist.” Clinton also supports Israel’s “security wall,” which divides Israel from the West Bank with the declared purpose of preventing terrorist attacks.

Clinton cosponsored the Palestinian Anti-Terrorism Act of 2006. She also sponsored a Senate resolution in 2007 “calling for the immediate and unconditional release of soldiers of Israel held captive by Hamas and Hezbollah.” That resolution was approved. Since taking office in 2000, she has regularly supported military and financial aid packages to Israel.

Christopher J. Dodd
Sen. Dodd (D-CT) has taken a solidly pro-Israel stance throughout his political career, according to pro-Israel lobby groups. At a speech before AIPAC in October 2006, Dodd boasted that he has “supported substantial foreign aid for Israel” since he was first elected to the Senate in 1980. Dodd cosponsored the Palestinian Anti-Terrorism Act of 2006. He also cosponsored Clinton’s Senate resolution in April 2007 urging Hamas and Hezbollah to release captive Israeli soldiers. Dodd, a longtime member of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, opposes the recognition of any Palestinian government including Hamas, which won the January 2006 Palestinian elections. Throughout his career he regularly has supported large financial and military aid packages for Israel.

Dodd says as president he would send former president Bill Clinton to the region “on a permanent basis for a while" to help negotiate a peace agreement. (DesMoines Register) Dodd joined Sen. John Kerry (D-MA) in a controversial trip (BosGlobe) to Syria in December 2006.

John Edwards
Edwards’ statements on the conflict have been generally supportive of Israel. In a speech in Herzliya, Israel, Edwards said that former Israeli Prime Minister Ariel Sharon showed “courage” in evacuating (BosGlobe) the settlements in the Gaza Strip in 2005. Edwards also said in that speech that Israel should “upgrade” its role in NATO, and possibly even become a member, and he sharply criticized the late Yasser Arafat in a vice presidential debate in the 2004 election. Yet pro-Israel lobbyists have criticized Edwards for choosing former Rep. David Bonior (New York Sun) as an adviser to his campaign. Writer Matthew Yglesias describes Bonior as “quite possibly the Israel lobby's least-liked legislator in recent history.”

Mike Gravel
Gravel says the U.S., its allies, and regional actors should “sponsor direct negotiations between Israel and the Palestinian Authority, including Hamas” to forge a two-state solution.http://www.gravel2008.us/?q=node/238

Dennis Kucinich
Rep. Kucinich (D-OH) is critical of Israeli use of force in the Palestinian territories. Although he has said that Hamas should renounce terrorism, he opposed the Palestinian Anti-Terrorism Act of 2006, arguing that the legislation would exacerbate a humanitarian crisis in the Palestinian territories. He said the United States should urge Israel to “accept the Palestinians' right to self-determination and economic survival and humanitarian relief, for food, medical care, for jobs.

In July 2006, Kucinich expressed concern that Israel’s response to the kidnapping of Israeli soldiers was disproportional and risked worsening conditions for Palestinian civilians. He called on Hamas to back down, but also argued that Israel should “halt its incursion into Gaza” and begin to work again toward a two-state solution.

Barack Obama
Sen. Obama (S-IL) has taken a strongly pro-Israel tone in addressing the conflict. In a speech before AIPAC in March 2007, Obama said the United States must “strengthen the hands of Palestinian moderates” and isolate Hamas. Haaretz U.S. correspondent Shmuel Rosner said that before AIPAC, Obama “sounded as strong as Clinton, as supportive as Bush, as friendly as Giuliani.”

Obama cosponsored the Palestinian Anti-Terrorism Act of 2006 and, like most of his fellow candidates, has called on the Palestinian leadership to “recognize Israel, to renounce violence, and to get serious about negotiating peace and security for the region.”

If elected, Obama says he would “insist on fully funding military assistance to Israel” (JPost) and continue to cooperate with Israel on the development of the Arrow missile defense system.

Bill Richardson
Richardson says that the United States must “re-engage” both parties in negotiations for peace and a two-state solution. “The suffering of the Palestinians is the most useful propaganda weapon the jihadists have,” Richardson said in a May 2007 interview. Richardson says he would send former president Bill Clinton to the Middle East as a “peace envoy.”

Republican Candidates on Israeli/Palestinian Conflict

Sam Brownback
Sen. Brownback (R-KS) calls Israel “a beacon of freedom and hope in an otherwise troubled region.” He advocates a Palestinian state as soon as “the Palestinians have demonstrated their commitment to democracy, the rule of law, and their full acceptance of the State of Israel with Jerusalem as its capital.”

Brownback cosponsored the Palestinian Anti-Terrorism Act of 2006. He also sponsored a resolution in the Senate that would recognize Jerusalem as the “undivided capital of Israel before the United States recognizes a Palestinian state.” That resolution, first introduced in April 2007, has not yet been voted on. Brownback introduced the same resolution in the Senate to no avail in 2003 and 2005.

John H. Cox
Cox’s stance on this issue is unknown.

Jim Gilmore
Gilmore has made few statements on this topic, but appears to support Israel in its security measures. In a June 2007 Republican debate, Gilmore said the United States should pursue stability in the Middle East to protect its interests in Israel.

Rudy Giuliani
Giuliani has held up Israel as “the only outpost of freedom and democracy in the Middle East and the only absolutely reliable friend of the United States.” (Haaretz) In a 2002 speech, Giuliani stressed that Jerusalem must “remain the undivided capital” of Israel. He also said at that time that the Palestinian Authority is not a “moral equivalent” to the Israeli government, because “there is a difference between a nation based on law and democracy and one that harbors terrorism.” Giuliani called on the Palestinian Authority to create “institutions of political and economic freedom and religious toleration.” More recently, Giuliani has said that in his view it “makes no difference” whether the Palestinian Authority is run by Hamas or Fatah leader Mahmoud Abbas. At a March 2007 fundraiser, Giuliani also said that the United States should “not push any peace process” until the Palestinian Authority recognizes Israel’s right to exist and condemns terrorism.

Mike Huckabee
Huckabee, who has taken nine trips to Israel in past 35 years, calls himself a “steadfast supporter” of Israel. On his campaign site, Huckabee pledges that as president, he would “ensure that Israel has access to the state-of-the-art weapons and technology she needs to defend herself from those who seek her annihilation.”

Duncan Hunter
Rep. Hunter (R-CA) says Israel should not give up “one inch” of territory. He supports Israel’s security wall and also says Israel should improve its missile defense system, with assistance from the United States, to “prevent the sort of attacks that country suffered during its war with Hezbollah.” Like Giuliani, Hunter says a peace process will be impossible until Palestinians “renounce terrorism and stop their attacks on the Israeli people.”

John McCain
Sen. McCain (R-AZ) has described himself as “proudly pro-Israel.” Like Giuliani and Hunter, McCain argues that there can be no peace process “until the Palestinians recognize Israel, forswear forever the use of violence, recognize their previous agreements, and reform their internal institutions." McCain says he would be willing to use military force against Iran if it attains a nuclear weapon and poses a “real threat” to Israel.

He also believes the United States should continue to provide Israel with “whatever military equipment and technology she needs to defend herself.” He has said that if elected president, he would “work to further isolate the enemies of Israel” like Syria, Hamas and Hezbollah, and he would “never pressure Israel to make concessions to states or movements committed to its destruction.” (JPost)

McCain said Israel’s military action in Lebanon in 2006 was justified. (Arizona Daily Star)

McCain cosponsored the Palestinian Anti-Terrorism Act of 2006.

Ron Paul
Rep. Paul (R-TX) has criticized U.S. “meddling” in the Middle East, which, he says, “has only intensified strife and conflict” He has said U.S. financial aid to Middle Eastern countries is only “adding fuel to the fire” and is “foolish and unconstitutional.” Though he advocates some U.S. diplomatic role in brokering an end to violence in the West Bank, he says the U.S. “should draw the line at any further entanglement.”

Paul spoke out against a July 2006 House resolution condemning attacks on Israel and “supporting Israel’s right to defend herself.” He argued that the resolution’s “strong message” could lead to an escalation of the war between Israel and Lebanon.

Mitt Romney
Romney has declared his commitment to “defeating the jihadists” around the world. His rhetoric regarding Israel has largely focused on curbing Iran, rather than resolving tensions between Israel and Palestine. Still, in a speech at the 2007 Herlzliya conference in Israel, Romney called on Arab states to stop providing financial support and weapons to Hamas and Hezbollah, and to pressure the Palestinians to “drop terrorism and recognize Israel's right to exist.” Romney also supports the security wall that divides the West Bank from Israel.

Tom Tancredo
Rep. Tancredo (R-CO), who has campaigned tirelessly for a wall to separate the United States from Mexico, frequently has cited the effectiveness of the Israeli security wall cordoning off the West Bank. In 2004, Tancredo called on then-Prime Minister Ariel Sharon to “stop settlement expansion on the Palestinian side of the fence.” In 2006, Tancredo cosponsored the Palestinian Anti-Terrorism Act of 2006 and joined in resolutions condemning the late Palestinian leader Yasser Arafat during the early years of the Bush administration.

Tommy Thompson
Thompson called the U.S.-Israeli alliance “essential” in fighting terrorism. He has not made many comments directly relating to the Israeli-Palestinian conflict or what his policy for the region would be if he were elected. He was criticized by many pro-Israel constituents for saying in a speech that earning money is “part of the Jewish tradition." (Haaretz)

Compiled by CFR.org’s Joanna Klonsky and Michael Moran.

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