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Jewish Militants: Fifteen Years, and More, of Terrorism in France
This essay, written in June 1995, is based on documentation provided by Robert Faurisson. Copies of the French-language text have been sent to key French government and police authorities.
In its issue of June 1991, the French monthly Le Choc du mois ("The Shock of the Month") published a rather lengthy report entitled "Jewish Militants: Fifteen Years of Terrorism" ("Milices juives. Quinze ans de terrorisme," pp. 7-13). Under the main headline, a subtitle summed up:
"Jewish Action Group," "Jewish Combat Organization," "Jewish Defense Organization"... Under these various names, Jewish activists for 15 years have unceasingly sown terror [in France] with total impunity. Provocations that have no other aim than to incite reprisals. As if certain people wanted the [French] Jewish community to feel threatened ...
The report reviews 50 cases of physical aggression committed by organized Jewish groups during the period from June 19, 1976, to April 20, 1991. Not mentioned, therefore, are physical attacks committed by individual Jews (which are, in any case, rare).
The victims of the 50 cases listed by Le Choc du mois, who number in the hundreds, suffered: loss of life, an eye put out, acid throwing, numerous hospitalizations, injuries followed by deep coma, lifetime disabilities, and serious post-traumatic conditions, "the commission of barbaric acts," severe beatings in the presence of policemen who refused to intervene, and numerous ambush attacks (in one case with the complicity of the daily newspaper Liberation).
Most of these acts of aggression were passed over in silence by the media or only briefly reported. Some were applauded by Jewish publications or organizations which, in general, after a few pro forma words of censure, suggested that the victims deserved their fate, that such attacks are "only natural and normal," and that no one need expect any leniency in future if he should ever again arouse Jewish "anger."
It is worthy of note that not one Jew has been the victim of a single attack in revenge by any "revisionist" or so-called "extreme right" group. (Although the press routinely lumps "revisionism" and the "extreme right" together, in reality historical revisionism receives support from thinking persons of all possible political views, from the ultra-left to the extreme right, and of all parties, except the Communists. Paul Rassinier, regarded as the founder of Holocaust revisionism in France, was a Socialist.)
From among the many attacks committed by Jewish militants or organizations, we shall confine ourselves here to mentioning only those involving the following victims: Fran?ois Duprat, a GRECE conference, Marc Fredriksen (twice), Charles Bousquet, Michel Caignet, Pierre Sidos, Olivier Mathieu, Pierre Guillaume, the "Friends of Saint-Loup," and Robert Faurisson. Many other cases from the 1976-1991 period could be mentioned. (For example, on November 2, 1976, the building in which "National Front" leader Jean-Marie Le Pen was living had to be entirely destroyed after being rocked from top to bottom of its five floors in a dynamiting for which a "Jewish Remembrance Group" claimed responsibility. On April 2, 1991, Fabrice Benichou, a newsboy died in his home after having been beaten up while selling a weekly paper in the Sentier Jewish quarter of Paris.)
Francois Duprat, a member of the leadership of the National Front party, and an author and distributor of revisionist writings, was killed in his car on March 18, 1978, when it was blown up with a sophisticated bomb. His wife was severely injured. A "Remembrance Commando" claimed responsibility for the crime. In keeping with the practice of "Nazi hunters" Serge and Beate Klarsfeld, Patrice Chairoff had published in Dossier n?onazisme ("The Neo-Nazi File," 1977), the name and address of Duprat, and of several other persons who were suspected of fascism, neo-Nazism, or revisionism (Le Monde, March 23, 1978, p. 7; April 26, 1978, p. 9).
In Le Droit de vivre ("The Right to Live"), the periodical of the "International League Against Racism and Anti-Semitism" ("Ligue internationale contre le racisme et l'antis?mitisme," LICRA), Jean Pierre-Bloch, the publication's director, commented on Duprat's murder without saying a single word about the wife's injuries. His comments reflect a cabalistic mentality: while affecting disapproval of this "infamous" crime, he expresses the view that, in his opinion, the crime is due to the fact that in the years 1977-78 "anarchy and the reign of political score-settling" took hold in France, and that "criminal accusations were made against the immigrants, Jews or Gypsies." Jean Pierre-Bloch thus equates indisputable criminal actions with "criminal accusations," of which he in fact indicates neither the purport nor the consequences. Still more revealing is the following passage in his statement: "Yes, it is true. We are ready to fight and to die to permit our adversaries to say in complete freedom what they think as long as they don't defend crime or harbor racial hatred." In the context of this murder, these words constitute a warning to anyone who might displease the Jews by following Duprat's example (Le Monde, May 7-8, 1978).
A few months later, Jean Pierre-Bloch described Robert Faurisson, Europe's foremost revisionist scholar, as an imitator of Louis Darquier de Pellepoix, Commissioner General of Jewish affairs in the wartime Vichy government, and then proclaimed: "Darquier will be extradited. Those who follow in his path can forget about living to a ripe old age. Sooner or later they will find the anti-racists on their trail." (Le Droit de vivre, Dec. 1978, p. 23). LICRA was founded in 1927 by Bernard Lecache under the name "League Against Pogroms" ("Ligue contre les pogroms") to defend the Russian Jew Shalom Schwarzbart, who had assassinated Ukrainian General Simon Petlura in Paris the previous year. The public clamor organized on behalf of the assassin led to his acquittal. Similar public campaigns would much later lead to the acquittal of other assassins (such as the May 5, 1976, acquittal of the thug and murderer Pierre Goldmann).
Following the murder of Francois Duprat, an article appeared in the leading French daily Le Monde about an English revisionist pamphlet that had been distributed in France by Duprat. This article by journalist Pierre Viansson-Pont?, a smear job pure and simple, failed to make any mention of Duprat's assassination ("Le mensonge (suite)" ["The Lie (continued)"], Le Monde, 3-4 Sept. 1978, p. 9).
A GRECE Conference
On December 9, 1979, about a hundred individuals wearing helmets attacked the 14th national conference of GRECE (Groupe d'?tudes et de recherches sur la civilisation europ?enne, "Group for the Study and Research of European Civilization"). Wrecking the book stands, they displayed banners bearing the name "Organisation juive de d?fense" (OJD, "Jewish Defense Organization"). Fifteen or so of the conference attendees were injured. One of them lost an eye. Several of the assailants were arrested by the police, and then released that same afternoon on the intervention of Jean-Pierre Pierre-Bloch, the son of Jean Pierre-Bloch and a friend of Jacques Chirac [currently President of France]. Jean-Pierre Pierre-Bloch had been involved, and would also later be involved, in other attacks and intercessions on behalf of these same attackers.
On September 19, 1980, a commando group of the "Jewish Defense Organization" (OJD) attacked sympathizers of Marc Fredriksen, an executive of FANE ("F?d?ration d'action nationale et europ?enne," or "National and European Action Federation"), at the Paris Palace of Justice (court house). Six persons were injured, two of them seriously. The Palace of Justice guards, although charged with maintaining order, permitted the Jewish militants in this case, as in all other similar circumstances, to act without or almost without hindrance.
On this occasion Jean Pierre-Bloch announced: "The law of retaliation might well appear again ... If a single one of our own is harmed, we shall apply the formula: an eye for an eye, a tooth for a tooth ... If we have to organize militarily, we shall do so" (Le Monde, Oct. 1, 1980). The phrase "If a single one of our own is harmed ..." indicates that not a single Jew had been harmed. And what was true in 1980 is still true in 1995. In the course of their fighting against nationalists or revisionists the Jews harm, wound or kill but are themselves never harmed, wounded or killed. If a French "right wing" group had harmed a Jew, the media of the entire world would have played up the attack, with shocking photographs of the victim, gruesome details about the injury, follow-up interviews, and outraged commentary.
Charles Bousquet, Mark Fredriksen
On October 3, 1980, an attack against the Paris synagogue in the rue Copernic, which resulted in four dead and 27 wounded, received enormous international media coverage. The four dead were passersby, among them an Israeli woman whose presence has never been explained. That same day Interior Minister Christian Bonnet received information that allowed him to determine that this was a Palestinian attack, but under pressure from Jewish organizations and with the cooperation of the major newspapers, he let it be assumed that this was an action of the extreme right. It was later learned that the attack was actually committed by a Palestinian from Cyprus.
On the same evening as the synagogue attack, the FANE headquarters were wrecked and the Librairie fran?aise bookstore on the rue de l'Abb?-Gregoire street in Paris was the target of a new arson attempt. This bookstore, owned by Jean-Gilles Malliarakis, would undergo more than ten attacks or attempts over a period of just a few years. The headquarters of a small political party, l'Oeuvre fran?aise, directed by Pierre Sidos was machine-gunned. Lynching scenes unfolded in Paris, as groups of Jewish demonstrators attacked lone young passersby who were singled out because they were tall, blond, and with short hair (Le Monde, Oct. 9, 1980, p. 12).
A few days later, on October 7, Charles Bousquet, 84 years old, was attacked in his home in Neuilly with sulfuric acid by a group of unknown men who had apparently mistaken him for the militant nationalist, Pierre Bousquet (no relation to Ren? Bousquet). He was hospitalized for a month at Foch Hospital in the major burns ward, and suffered after-effects from his injuries. He refused to press charges because his son Pierre, a professor of history at the University of Paris IV, has asked him not to "on account of the Israelites." He said: "They'll be in Jerusalem or Tel Aviv, the ones who did it. It would all be useless. I want to forget it" (during a conversation with R. Faurisson, May 2, 1984).
On October 12, 1980, Mark Fredriksen was beaten up and admitted to the Rambouillet hospital in serious condition. His apartment was torn apart in his absence. While under treatment at Berck-sur-Mer for multiple fractures, he came close to suffering another attack: three young men showed up and asked to see him; their description matched that of the Aziza team that subsequently attacked Michel Caignat with acid (see below).
On October 20, 1980, the writer Andre Figueras was attacked at his residence.
On the morning of January 29, 1981, Michel (Miguel) Caignet, a 26-year-old Sorbonne student who was preparing for a doctorate in Anglo-German linguistics, had just left his residence in Courbevoie to go to the university when he was accosted by four individuals. They knocked him down and prevented him from moving. One of the four attackers sprayed his face and his right hand with sulfuric acid.
Caignet had belonged to FANE, and he was a revisionist. He had been denounced by the weekly VSD (Vendredi/Samedi/ Dimanche). Following the attack with acid, his face looked so hideous that only two newspapers ventured to publish his photograph. The principal perpetrator of the attack, Yves Aziza, a medical student and the son of Charles Aziza (an assistant pharmacist at Montreuil), was identified by the police within an hour of the crime. But in this case, as in others, the French police and courts scandalously permitted Yves Aziza to flee to Germany and to Israel. At the Justice Ministry, an official named Main at the criminal affairs bureau (headed by Raoul B?teille) sarcastically evaded every question put to him with regard to the 14-day delay in opening a judicial inquiry. Among Yves Aziza's correspondents was Daniel Ziskind, the son of Mich?le Ziskind, sister of Jean-Pierre Pierre-Bloch, who is himself the son of Jean Pierre-Bloch.
On September 18, 1981, 200 members of the Organisation juive de combat (OJC) or "Jewish Combat Organization" laid down the law at the Palace of Justice in Paris, where the defamation trial brought by Pierre Sidos, president of l'Oeuvre fran?aise, against Jean-Pierre Bloch was taking place. As usual, Jewish thugs beat up several of the spectators.
On November 25, 1981, the premises of the ?tudes et documentation bookstore were set on fire by a commando group.
On May 8, 1988, at Saint-Augustin Square in Paris, OJC commandos used iron bars to attack l'Oeuvre fran?aise supporters who were taking part in the traditional parade in honor of Joan of Arc. Some 15 supporters were injured, two of them very seriously. Four of the victims were hospitalized. A septuagenarian remained in a coma for several weeks. Ten OJC members were questioned by the police. That same afternoon Jean-Pierre Pierre-Bloch interceded with the criminal police investigation unit (police judiciaire) on their behalf. Legal proceedings were instituted against some of the attackers. Some attackers were released with the following notation by the examining magistrate: "preliminary examination inopportune." Other attackers were tried, though not without pressure "from the highest political level" being brought to bear on the public prosecutor's office. In total, only three of the attackers were tried. Each received a two-year suspended (!) prison sentence.
On February 6, 1990, millions of viewers witnessed the brutal attack against Olivier Mathieu during a television broadcast emceed by Christophe Dechavanne. Jean-Pierre Pierre-Bloch came on to the stage with a group of OJC militants. Mathieu had just time enough to exclaim: "Faurisson is right." Then ten or so of the thugs severely beat him, his fiancee, and Marc Botrel. Among those present was an important figure among Jewish militants: Moshe Cohen, a former second lieutenant of the Israeli army and an officer at the time of the Tagar organization, the student branch of the Betar (59 boulevard de Strasbourg, Paris Xe). The attacks continued off stage and out into the street. One attacker was questioned by the police, but released a few hours later on the intercession of Jean-Pierre Pierre-Bloch.
Pierre Guillaume, a leftist, is in charge of the Vieille Taupe ("Old Mole") publishers, which has issued a number of revisionist works, including those of Professor Faurisson. He has been the victim of a number of serious attacks, both against his person -- at the Sorbonne, in his Paris bookstore, and at the Palace of Justice in Paris (where the guards did not intervene) -- as well as against his property (book warehouse, video equipment, bookstore). In 1991, groups of demonstrators, most of them Jews, laid siege to his bookstore in the rue d'Ulm on a regular basis. As a result of various acts of violence (breaking shop windows, spraying chemical products, physical intimidation, etc.), they finally succeeded in closing it.
The 'Friends of Saint-Loup'
On April 20, 1991, at the "Maison des Mines" building in Paris, about 50 individuals claiming to be members of the Groupe d'action juive (GAJ), or "Jewish Action Group," and armed with iron bars and baseball bats, attacked the attendees of a meeting of the "Friends of Saint-Loup" ("Les Amis de Saint-Loup"), named after a deceased writer whose real name was Marc Augier. Thirteen persons, most of them elderly, were injured, two of them very seriously. Juliette Cavalie, 67 years of age, was taken to Beaujon Hospital where she lapsed into a coma that lasted three months. After regaining consciousness, she was condemned to spend the rest of her days unable to walk or even to feed herself. Alain Leauthier, a journalist for Liberation and a relative of the socialist deputy and Jewish zealot Julien Dray, witnessed the attack from beginning to end, and provided a smug and ironical report of it ("Zionist commando unit invites itself to the neo-Nazi meeting," Liberation, April 22, 1991, p. 28).
Europe's most prominent Holocaust revisionist scholar, Professor Robert Faurisson, was the victim of ten physical assaults between November 20, 1978, and May 31, 1993 (two in Lyon, two in Vichy, two in Stockholm and four in Paris). Seven of these attacks were at the hands of French Jewish organizations or militants -- two in Lyon, one in Vichy, one in Stockholm (by Swedish Jews together with French Jews who had come from Paris by plane), one at the Sorbonne, and one at the Palace of Justice in Paris.
The first of these seven attacks took place on November 20, 1978. It was lauded in Liberation-Lyon by the Jewish journalist Bernard Schalscha, who reported the day, the place, and the hour of the professor's courses. Members of the Jewish Students Union who had come by first-class train from Paris attacked the professor at the University, while Dr. Marc Aron, a cardiologist and president of the liaison committee of the Jewish institutions and organizations of Lyon, was present.
The second attack occurred a few weeks later when Faurisson attempted to resume his courses. On that day as well, Marc Aron was again at the university.
At the Sorbonne, on September 12, 1987, members of a Jewish group of militants attacked Henry Chauveau, Michel Sergent, Pierre Guillaume, Freddy Storer (a Belgian), and Professor Faurisson, all of whom were injured. (Chauveau was seriously injured.) The Sorbonne guards apprehended one of the attackers. A plainclothes policeman ordered the attacker released and used the violence as an excuse to expel the professor from the university. (Prof. Faurisson had once taught at the Sorbonne.)
On September 16, 1989, three men set a trap for Faurisson in a park near his residence in Vichy as he was out walking his poodle. After spraying a stinging gas into his face, temporarily blinding him, the assailants punched him to the ground and then repeatedly kicked him in the face and chest. If a passerby had not intervened, the attackers' kicks to the head would have been finished off the 60-year-old scholar. Badly injured, Faurisson had to undergo a lengthy surgical operation. The crime investigation unit inquiry confirmed that the attack could be attributed to "young Jewish activists from Paris."
On the eve of the attack, Faurisson had noted with surprise the presence near the park of a certain Nicolas Ullmann (born in 1963). On July 12, 1987, Ullmann had violently struck the professor at the Vichy Sporting-Club. When he was questioned at the criminal investigation department about his presence in that area, he denied having been there. Moreover, Ullmann claimed that on the very day of the attack he had taken part in a masked ball ("bal masqu?") in Paris, so that it would be impossible for anyone other than his host and friend to vouch for his presence in Paris that day. It should be noted that the examining magistrate of Cusset, near Vichy, never summoned Faurisson to hear his testimony. Instead, judge Jocelyne Rubantel merely received him in her office in Cusset to inform him that she would ask for a dismissal of the charges -- which she obtained. No search was made of the Paris headquarters of Betar/Tagar. Such a search would have incited too much "anger" in the Jewish community.
On October 16, 1989, precisely one month after the attack in Vichy, a bomb exploded at the door of the offices in Paris of Choc du mois, which were then ransacked. Credit for the attack was claimed by the "Jewish Combat Organization" (OJC) and some far left groups. ?ric Letty, who had devoted an article in Choc du mois to Professor Faurisson, would have been killed had he not, by a miracle, detected the imminence of the explosion.
We do not have space here to cite the other attacks against Professor Faurisson.
Many other cases could be cited of attacks by Jewish groups: in addition to the incidents during the years 1976-1991 listed in the Choc du mois article, there are other, unlisted, cases, as well as attacks that have occurred since 1992. To repeat: the total number of victims of Jewish terror amounts to several hundreds, even though, in contrast, not a single Jew has been the victim of a concerted or organized attack in France.
On January 14, 1988, in Lyon, Professor Jean-Claude Allard was hospitalized following a group attack against him for which the OJC claimed responsibility. The attackers ambushed him in the parking lot of the University of Lyon III. In June 1985, he had presided over the examining board of the thesis of revisionist scholar Henri Roques on "The 'Confessions' of Kurt Gerstein," which have been widely regarded as key evidence for Holocaust gassings. (In an action without precedent in French academic history, the thesis' defense was annulled under pressure by "angry" Jews. [The English-language edition of The 'Confessions' of Kurt Gerstein is published by the IHR.])
Armed Jewish militants carried out new acts of violence on April 13, 1994, during a break in the trial of the "hooligans of the Parc des Princes," a Paris soccer stadium. (At least one of the hooligans was a Jew.) In this case the victims were policemen. The militants entered the Palace of Justice with weapons and iron bars, and one of the court house guards was attacked. "An interesting detail," one Paris paper noted. "No investigation was made to clear up the affair, and the only arrest made was that of one of the 'nationalist militants' who had been attacked and ventured to defend himself." ("Jewish militants make the law," Le Libre Journal, April 27, 1994, p. 9. See also: "The Betar makes the law in the Palace of Justice," Rivarol, April 22, 1994, p. 5).
On April 28, 1994, the German citizen Ludwig Watzal, an official guest of the University of Nanterre (near Paris), was struck by members of Jewish or leftist organizations.
Many bookstores have been wrecked. In addition to the Bleu-Blanc-Rouge, Ogmios, Librairie Francaise, and Librairie de la Vieille Taupe stores, we may mention the Librairie de la Joyeuse Garde. (In the last-named case, shop windows were broken, steel safety shutters were glued shut, and excrement was strewn around.) Further targets of attacks, for which Jewish organizations claimed responsibility, have been offices, buildings, exhibitions, a book warehouse and a church (Saint-Nicolas-du-Chardonnet in Paris, on December 21, 1978).
The Most Dangerous Place in France
For those who have been targeted for attack by the Jewish militants, the most dangerous city in France is Paris. Within Paris, one of the most dangerous districts is the first district, and within that district the most dangerous place is the Palace of Justice -- the central courthouse -- and the surrounding area. Paradoxically, this area is under particularly good police surveillance because the Palace has its own "military command" consisting of hundreds of armed guards, and because next to the Palace building is the "Quai des Orfevres," headquarters of the police crime investigations department. As it happens, though, in recent years the guards and police have permitted many acts of violence to be carried out, especially against revisionists who have been summoned to court or who come to attend the trials.
When a group of Jewish militants decide to burst into the court building, the scenario is invariably as follows: the thugs, whose demeanor betrays their bellicose intentions, are in no way restrained by the guards from their intended victims. No officer attempts to inform these shock troopers that violence will not be tolerated. The assailants are permitted to insult, to provoke, and then to strike their victims. Sometimes guards will make an effort to protect victims. If a militant calls special attention to himself by extreme violence, three guards quickly take him away, but then let him go. Once the militants have completed their brutal work and have disappeared, the guards hasten to the bloody or swollen victims, fussing over them like concerned nannies. The victims are never able to get the police to interrogate the attackers, or even to learn their identities.
On May 9, 1995, a trial in which Professor Faurisson was the defendant was held in the Criminal Court (17th section of the tribunal correctionnel) without the interference of such militants. This was not surprising, though, because attorney Jean-Serge Lorach, who represented the plaintiffs in this case, announced in his pleading that he had asked "survivors" and reporters not to attend the trial. All the same, Betar/Tagar chief Moshe Cohen was present in the court with some colleagues. When the trial finished, Cohen was at the court building exit with four men (one of whom had a cellular phone) to keep an eye on Faurisson, his attorney, and others who were accompanying them. Cohen's team had an unmarked police car (Renault 19 number 356JEK75) parked near the court building gate, positioned to leave quickly. Cohen, the Betar/Tagar group's "dirty jobs" specialist, was apparently there with the authorization of Robert Baujard, police commissioner of Paris' First District, and with the consent of Colonel Roger Renault, commander of the court guards, whose orders were to tell the curious that the vehicle belonged "to the police."
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